রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (Part-3)
At that time, several notable songs of the poet's Swadesh episode were composed. Two of his songs got the status of national anthem of Bangladesh and India. 'Amar Sonar Bangla I Love You' is the national anthem of Bangladesh and 'Jan Gana Man' is the national anthem of India. At this time, Rabindranath outlined a comprehensive program to make the country and society self-reliant in his famous essay 'Swadeshi Samaj' (Bhadra 1311/1904). In this, he highlighted the various aspects of public service such as constructive methods of community organization, public education, social authority, cooperatives etc. In fact, his organizational work began during his stay in Shilaidh. He launched several programs to alleviate the plight of the poor, including education, medical care, provision of drinking water, construction and repair of roads, debt relief for farmers, etc. Rabindranath supported Swadeshi movement but never supported radical nationalism or terrorism.
In 1901, Rabindranath left Shilaidah's bus and went to Santiniketan. Earlier in 1892, Devendranath established a temple at Santiniketan. Since then, 7 Paush festivals and fairs have been introduced there. Rabindranath established a school in Santiniketan with the Maharishi's permission in December 1901 (7 Paush of 1308). At that time it was called Brahmacharyasram, later Santiniketan Vidyalaya. That school was later transformed into Visva Bharati. Santiniketan School is one of the greatest assets of Rabindranath Tagore's life. The journey of that school started with five students. Rathindranath son of Rabindranath was the first student of that school. Poet's wife Mrinalini Devi looked after the students.
The way of life at Santiniketan Brahmacharyasram was guided by the ideals of ancient Indian Tapovana. A simple carefree life in close companionship of guru-disciple. Rabindranath's main help in running this Brahmacharyasram was Brahmabandhav Upadhyaya - a Roman Catholic Vedantic monk. It was Brahmabandhav who first gave Rabindranath the title of 'World Poet'. The poet's displeasure with the conventional educational system dates back to his childhood. Therefore, the idea of a life-oriented ideal education system that existed in his mind for a long time, he made it a reality by establishing Santiniketan School. He wanted to make this school an ideal school. Rabindranath wanted to express India's hospitality to the world, India's practice, India's interest in world culture, India's devotion and love of humanity through the next phase of Visva Bharati. Santiniketan Vidyalaya was established at the beginning of the Swadeshi era and became Visva Bharati at the end of the First World War with the determination of Visva Maitri.
Rabindranath repeatedly faced various disasters in his personal and family life. Poet wife Mrinalini Devi died in 1902. Within a few months, daughter Renuka died. Maharshi Devendranath passed away in 1905 and Shamindranath, the youngest son of the poet, died in 1907. Rabindranath was overwhelmed by the grief of so many deaths, but he calmly performed the duties of the ashram. With the family disaster at that time, the poet was in extreme financial crisis. But he had a great power to overcome all crises. Therefore, his work did not get interrupted, literary pursuits did not stop.
The impact of Santiniketan episode on the literary life of Rabindranath Tagore is particularly significant. Naivedya Kavya and various essays written during this period reveal the forms of meditation and penance of ancient India. On the one hand, he portrayed the reality of life, psychology, and on the other hand, the problems of the homeland in the novels Ekshin Bali (1309), Naokadubi (1313) and Gora (1316). However, in this episode, Rabindramanas takes a great turn. It is here that the poet discovers the eternal India beyond caste narrowness
All of a sudden, after being freed from the self-centered world, the poet came to the world of people. This is where Rabindrapratibha's genius really shines. He composed the poems Picture and Song (1884), Prakriti Pratishod (1884), Kardi and Komal (1886), Maya Khel (1888) and Mansi (1890). Also wrote prose, criticism, novels etc. His first two novels Bouthakurani Hat (1883) and Rajarshi (1887) were written at this time.
On December 9, 1883, Rabindranath Tagore got married to Mrinalini Devi Ray Chowdhury. She is the daughter of Benimadhav Roy Chowdhury of Khulna, Bangladesh. Rabindranath and Mrinalini Devi had two sons and three daughters. Shortly after the marriage, some of the responsibility of his father's immense work fell on Rabindranath Tagore. He was the editor of Maharshi's Adi Brahmo Samaj. There were various doubts and uncertainties in the Brahmo society. During the Calcutta religious agitation of that era, young Rabindranath faithfully performed the duties assigned to him.
Later another chapter began in Rabindranath's life. In September 1890, he went abroad with Satyendranath for the second time for a month. After his return in October, he had to take over the maintenance of the estate on the orders of his father. Rabindranath's literary work found a different path through fulfilling this duty. All the poems, plays and novels he has written so far have been conceptual and purely imaginative. This time he got an opportunity to get closer to the people's life and observed the common life of the poor very closely. The poet comes down from the world of imagination to the direct life of the real world. As a result, the stories of the collection of stories, a wonderful wealth of Bengali literature, were written. Besides, the nature of North and East Bengal is beautifully reflected in his letters to his niece Indira Devi, which are compiled as Chhinnapatra and Chhinnapatravali. During this phase of his life, Rabindranath traveled to Shahjadpur, Patisar, Kaligram and Shilaidha in different places of Bangladesh on the occasion of zamindari supervision. A Kavitirtha was built in Shilaidha on this basis. Padma river, Baluchar, Kasban, sunrise-sunset, poor life and the mood of the common people while riding the boat on Padma Vaksha deeply moved the poet, which is reflected in the story and poetry of this episode.
Some critics have identified this period of Rabindra's life as a period of pursuit. Sadhana Patrika was published under the editorship of Dwijendranath's son Sudhindranath. This Sadhana Patrika spreads the full brilliance of Rabindra Prativa. He used to write short stories and articles in this newspaper. His educational views and political discussions were published in the magazine. The poet's views on education and politics were clear and strong. In his essay 'Manipulation of Education' (1892) he proposed to make Bengali the medium of education. Rabindranath always emphasized on constructive work. Knowing one's own race, society and country better, improving oneself with greater humane principles and not depending on the alms of a foreign ruler and becoming energized by self-power were the main points of his essay. In the essays of this period, his thoughts on various aspects of Bengali society emerged on the one hand, and on the other hand, the nature of India's heritage, its spiritual nature and the trend towards unity. Sonar Tari, Chitra, Chaitali, Kalpana, Kannika, Katha and Kahini Kabir's works of Shilaidah episode. In the poems of this episode, the real picture of life and sense of beauty, the story of great sacrifices of present time and ancient India, contemporary society and history have been revealed at the same time.
Rabindranath never engaged in active politics, but neither did he isolate himself from contemporary events; Rather, he was an elite man of independence. Rabindranath inaugurated the Congress conference held in Calcutta in 1896 by singing 'Bande Mataram'. The poet wrote his famous poem 'Shivaji Utsav' inspired by the Shivaji festival introduced by Balgangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra. He analyzed the political situation of the time in various articles published in Sadhana, Bangadarsan and Bharti. Rabindranath strongly opposed the partition of Bengal in 1905 during the Bengal Partition movement. In an article published in the Bangadarsan newspaper, the poet expressed his sentiments and composed a song commemorating the day of Rakhibandhan:
The soil of Bengal is the water of Bengal, the air of Bengal is the fruit of Bengal
May there be virtue, may there be virtue, may there be virtue O Lord.
At that time, several notable songs of the poet's Swadesh episode were composed. Two of his songs got the status of national anthem of Bangladesh and India. 'Amar Sonar Bangla I Love You' is the national anthem of Bangladesh and 'Jan Gana Man' is the national anthem of India. At this time, Rabindranath outlined a comprehensive program to make the country and society self-reliant in his famous essay 'Swadeshi Samaj' (Bhadra 1311/1904). In this, he highlighted the various aspects of public service such as constructive methods of community organization, public education, social authority, cooperatives etc. In fact, his organizational work began during his stay in Shilaidh. He launched several programs to alleviate the plight of the poor, including education, medical care, provision of drinking water, construction and repair of roads, debt relief for farmers, etc. Rabindranath supported Swadeshi movement but never supported radical nationalism or terrorism